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Terme Definition
2D seismic data Seismic data represented in two dimensions.
3D seismic data Seismic data represented in three dimensions.
Aeromagnetics An airborne geophysical method that studies variations in Earth’s magnetic field.
AGG (Airborne Gravity Gradiometric) or FTG (Full Tensor Gravity Gradiometry) An airborne geophysical method that studies variations in Earth’s gravitational field.
Alkalinity Alkalinity is solution's ability to neutralize acids.
Bituminous minerals Minerals wrapped or coated with bitumen.
Calcareous nannofossils Very small microfossils averaging 10micron, at the limit of the separating power of the optical microscope. They include coccoliths, hystricospheres and hysteriospheres and are used to define biostratigraphic units and the establishment of correlations between these units at various points on the globe.
Chemical treatment Chemical treatment is the process by which samples are treated chemically.
Chromatography Chemical analysis and purification method of the constituents of a mixture by absorbing selectively elements of this mixture or by sharing in liquid or gas phase.
Comminution Comminution is the crushing and grinding treatments of samples.
Conradson residue Conradson carbon residue, commonly known as "Concarbon" or "CCR" is a laboratory test used to provide an indication of the coke-forming tendencies of an oil. Quantitatively, the test measures the amount of carbonaceous residue remaining after the oil's evaporation and pyrolysis.
Core drill A sounding tool (drilling) used to collect a field sample called a core and consisting of a tube (intended to receive the core) that drives a blade or roller crown (intended to attack the field).
Core Library A facility for the storage and conservation of core samples and cuttings from drilling operations.
Cuttings (or drill cuttings) Rock cuttings brought to the surface by drilling fluid.
Cuttings (or drill cuttings) Rock cuttings brought to the surface by drilling fluid.
Density The density of a solid or liquid is the ratio between the density of this substance and the density of water.
Destructive drilling The destructive survey is a soil survey designed to establish a survey of the geology of the field from the samples collected as well as to record the depths of water arrivals.
Drilling Drilling refers to the action of drilling a hole through a solid material using a special machine.
Drills cores Core boreholes provide the best sample quality to characterize both the nature and condition of the soil. The cored boreholes also make it possible to visualize the terrain crossed, to specify with certainty their geometric arrangement, to carry out a certain number of laboratory and in situ tests.
Dynamic penetrometer The dynamic penetration test is probably the oldest of the in situ geotechnical tests, its principle being very simple, like the nail that is pushed into a board by a hammer.
Economic model A scheme that combines the parameters that characterize an activity from the point of view of the organization, operation and strategy in order to reveal the factors of its profitability.
ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography) A geophysical method that studies the electrical resistivity of the underground.
Exploitation Hydrocarbon development and production operations.
Exploration Exploration and prospecting operations carried out to discover Hydrocarbon deposits.
Flash point The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which its vapours ignite if given an ignition source.
Foraminifera Foraminifera are single-celled organisms, members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.
Geochemical analysis Geochemical Analysis are analysis used in organic geochemistry : TOC analysis (Total Organic Carbon), hydrocarbon potential, maturation analysis,…
Geochemistry The science that studies the history and behaviour of the chemical elements that make up the deep and superficial areas of the Earth using joint methods of geology and chemistry.
Geochemistry of the cap rocks A study of the chemical composition of cap rocks.
Geological section A schematic representation of the vertical section of the different geological layers according to their dips and thicknesses.
Geophysics Set of disciplines (geothermal, magnetism, seismology, seismic, volcanism, etc.) which aim to specify the structure, properties and dynamic behaviour of the earth.
Geotechnical survey A geotechnical survey is an investigation of the subsoil, carried out with or without drilling a hole, intended to determine the nature and mechanical characteristics, physical and possibly chemical components in order to predict its behaviour during the execution of a structure.
GORE An advanced method of surface geochemical survey for detecting subsurface (semi)volatile organic compounds and Hydrocarbon micro-infiltration.
Granulometric analysis A granulometric analysis is the operation which consists of studying the grains distribution in a sample according to their characteristics ( weight, size, …).
Granulometry / grain size Granulometry is the measurement of the size distribution in a collection of grains.
Gravimetry A ground-based geophysical method that studies variations in the Earth's gravitational field.
Humidité L'humidité permet de déterminer en pourcentage la quantité d’eau dans l’échantillon.
Ilménite  L'ilménite est une espèce minérale constituée d'un oxyde de fer et de titane, de formule chimique FeIITiO3 avec des traces de Mg, Mn et V.
Inclined sounding Inclined sounding is a sounding with an inclination between 0° and 90°. This type of sounding is used for oblique and homogeneous layer structures. Inclined perpendicularly to the stratification, these sounding allow to cross the whole series of interesting structure with a short length of drilling.
Kerosene A complex fossilized organic material, found in oil shale and other sedimentary rock, which is insoluble in common organic solvents and yields petroleum products on distillation.
Leaching Leaching is the process of extracting substances from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid.
Level of maturation The state of a source rock with respect to its ability to generate oil or gas. The maturity of a source rock depends on the pressure, temperature and the duration of the favourable conditions for Hydrocarbon generation.
Loss on ignition A change in mass resulting from heating a sample under specified conditions.
Magnetic separation Magnetic separation is the process of ores separating by using their magnetics properties.
Magnetic tape (or magnetic ribbon) A medium for recording and reading analog or digital information using a tape recorder, video tape recorder and tape drive.
Magnetic tape (or magnetic ribbon) A medium for recording and reading analog or digital information using a tape recorder, video tape recorder and tape drive.
Magnetometry Magnetometry is the field of physics concerning the measurement of a magnetic field, magnetic moment (or magnetization) and physical characteristics related to the magnetic properties of materials. Instruments for measuring the magnetic properties of matter are magnetometers.
Manometry Detection of radon gas using an emanometer.
Mechanical preparation Any drying, crushing and grinding operation that aims to fragment and reduce gradually the grain size of samples.
Mineral A mineral is most often a homogeneous natural solid with an ordered atomic structure and a defined chemical composition.
Mineralogy The study of naturally occurring inorganic substances, called minerals, whether of terrestrial or extraterrestrial origin.
Mining Indices In geology or mineral exploration, a clue is, for a given substance, the revelation at a point, of some traces which make it to envisage the presence of this substance in large quantities in a nearby place...
Ore processing Ore processing is the process of separating commercially valuable minerals from their ores.
Organic matter Carbon-based materials from organic remains such as plants, animals and their wastes deposited in terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Outcrop Visible exposure of bedrock where ancient sedimentary deposits accumulated on the surface are exposed by erosion on the Earth’s surface.
Palynofacies A palynofacies is the complete assemblage of organic matter and palynomorphs in a fossil deposit.
Palynology Panology is the body of scientific research in which pollen grains and spores are the object or the means.
Palynomorphs Palynomorphs are microfossils with organic walls (as opposed to all microfossils with mineral walls such as foraminifera, conodonts, etc...)."
Petrographic analysis A petrographic analysis is the study of the rock characteristic in order to identify its mineralogical composition, structure and origin.
Petrographic studies Studies of rocks including their description, classification and interpretation of their genesis.
Petrographic studies Studies of rocks including their description, classification and interpretation of their genesis.
Petroleum block A subdivision of the National Hydrocarbon Mining Domain that may be open to petroleum operations.
Petroleum drilling A well drilled to confirm the presence of Hydrocarbons.
Phoenix strategy Like the firebird, this new strategy aims to make OMNIS and the strategic sectors shine again through an ambitious vision, stable missions and values of excellence.
Physical treatment Treatment of samples which consists of using physical process to obtain contaminant.
Physicochemical analysis Physicochemical analysis are all analysis applied in petroleum product to determine its characteristic : viscosity, density, flash point, …
Physicochemical characterisation Physicochemical characterisation defines the quality of the petroleum product by determining its physical and chemical properties.
Precious metal Precious metals refer to a set of metals, as a rule, rare and expensive with exceptional conservation qualities. These terms refer to metals such as gold, silver, platinum, etc. These precious metals are the subject of major investments, sometimes speculations, and are traded all over the world.
Precipitation Formation of precipitate. Formation of precipitate. A prexipitatite is a substance separated from a solution or suspension by chemical or physical change usually as an insoluble amorphous or crystalline solid.
Profils ou coupes géologiques Une coupe géologique est la représentation de la géométrie des terrains et des structures géologiques le long d'un trait de coupe. Les coupes géologiques permettent de montrer la structure en profondeur.
Qualitative mineralogical analysis A qualitative mineralogical analysis is the determination of elements or group of elements which are included in the composition.
Quantitative mineralogical analysis Quantitative mineralogical analysis is the determination of the concentration of different elements or compounds in a rock sample, soil or materials.
Radioactive minerals Radioactive minerals are mainly those containing uranium and/or thorium and secondarily radium, radon and potassium 40.
Radiometry Measurement of energy quantities relating to radiation. Remote sensing using the own electromagnetic radiation of objects at radio or infrared wavelengths
Rare earths Rare earths are a group of 17 strongly related heavy elements that comprise Sc, Y, and the Lanthanide Group.
Raster format Raster geographic files are analogous to the bitmap files of the infographic. Their format is therefore often that of an image computer file (.tif, .ecw, .jpg, .png...) to which are added geo-referencing information either by an associated file or by an internal storage (geo format, for example).
Reservoir rock Generally a sedimentary rock with sufficient porosity and permeability to store and transmit fluids (oil/gas, water etc.).
Salinity Salinity refers to the amount of dissolved salts in a liquid, especially water which is a powerful solvent for many minerals.
SARA (Saturate, Aromatic, Resin and Asphaltene) SARA method (Saturate, Aromatic, Resin and Asphaltene) is an analysis method that divides crude oil components according to their polarizability and polarity. The saturate fraction consists of nonpolar material including linear, branched, and cyclic saturated Hydrocarbons (paraffins).
Satellite data Shuttle Radar Topography Mission refers to matrix and vector topographic files provided by two American agencies. This observation campaign has made it possible to establish Digital Field Models (DEM: Digital Elevation Model).
Satellite data: ASTER ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) was launched on 18 December 1999, aboard the TERRA satellite, Americano Japonais, consisting of 14 spectral bands, resolutions 15, 30 and 90 metres. Scientists use ASTER data to produce detailed maps of soil temperature, emissivity, reflectance and elevation. In geology, it makes it possible to carry out the mapping of the various mineral alterations, the extractions of the geological structures and the cartographies of the geological units.
Satellite data: LANDSAT7-8, The Landsat programme is the first space observation programme for civilian use. NASA, at the instigation of the American Geological Studies Institute and the Department of Agriculture in the mid-1960s. composed of 8 spectral bands. Landsat 7, launched on April 15, 1999, is one of the satellites of the Landsat Program, which was developed by the American Space Agency, Its main objective is to update the global satellite photo archive, providing recent, cloud-free images. Launched on 11 February 2013, the Landsat 8, consisting of 11 spectral bands, is the eighth satellite in the Landsat programme. In geology, it makes it possible to make extractions of geological structures and cartographies of geological units.
Sediment content Sediment content is the quantity of sediment contained in a material, such as soil, rock through oil product.
Sedimentary Basin A trough-shaped depression in the earth's crust, formed by thermal or tectonic subsidence due to a slow and progressive subsidence of sediments that are deposited over a long period.
Sedimentology Sedimentology is the science and discipline that studies the characteristics, placement processes and disposition of bulk particles, the sediments, either during their movement or after their deposition, sedimentation or diagenetic process.
Seismic lines A representation of the geological layers at depth along 2D or 3D profiles from the echoes of generated seismic waves.
Separation by thick liquor Separation by thick liquor consists of separating minerals by exploiting their density difference through soaking in a higher known density. "
Spectrometry Set of spectral analysis methods for accessing the composition and structure of matter. In the research or exploration of radioactive minerals such as uranium, Gamma spectrometry is used, with the spectometer, to provide the concentrations of U, Th and K in environments.
Stratigraphy A branch of geology concerned with the form, arrangement, geographic distribution, chronologic succession, classification, correlation, and mutual relationships of rock strata, especially sedimentary. Also known as stratigraphic geology.
Stream sediment Stream sediments.
Structural section A schematic representation of the vertical section of the different geological layers according to their structures.
Table format Data or information in the form of a table in which the formats often used are . xls; . csv; . dbf
Thin layer chromatography Physic method of separation that relies on differences of affinities.
Thin section A thin section (or petrographic thin section) is a laboratory preparation of a rock, mineral, soil, pottery, bones, or even metal sample for use with a polarizing petrographic microscope, electron microscope and/or electron microprode.
Topographical profiles A topographic profile or topographic cross-section is a method of representing the relief.
Trace elements Trace elements are chemical elements present only in minute amounts in a particular sample or environment.
Uraniferous Containing uranium.
Vacuum impregnation Manufacturing method of thin section to obtain mechanical and optical quality suitable particularly for indured samples.
Vector format Vectors are “mathematical drawings”. We also talk about vector drawings or vector images. They consist of attribute components (tables) and graphical components by which three main types of geometries are distinguished: point, line and polygon. Their formats are often those of shapefile (.shp).
Vertical sounding Vertical sounding is the most classic and easiest to carry out with 90° inclination. They are generally used for recognition and when it is necessary to know the nature of the recovery where only specific information is required.
Viscosity The viscosity is the resistance to the flow of a fluid.
Water content The water content is the percentage ratio between the mass of water and the mass of dry material.
Terme Definition